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The biceps brachii is a two-headed muscle of the front arm. The two parts are the short head and the long head, and both function to flex your elbow, externally rotate your forearm, and assist during flexion of your shoulder. When you train your biceps, you can place more emphasis on the short head by altering the way you perform basic biceps exercises. Doing so can help you improve the balance between the two heads, if you have a deficiency.
The most basic biceps exercise is the standing curl. This exercise is excellent for building overall biceps muscle mass. You can do the standing curl using a barbell, a pair of dumbbells, or a cable pulley. To best target your biceps, use a supinated, or underhanded grip. When using dumbbells, you can also do a slight variation in which you begin the exercise with your hands in a neutral grip, and then externally rotate your forearm while bending your elbow to raise the dumbbell. By doing this variation, you essentially involve two of the main functions of the biceps, which are elbow flexion and forearm supination.
To emphasis the short head of the biceps, you should perform the incline curl. The incline position, in which you lie face up on a incline bench between 45 and 60 degrees, places your shoulders in an extended position. In other words, your arms are positioned a bit toward the rear. This places your biceps in a stretched position, especially the short head, and thus allows you to better recruit this part of the biceps.
The chest fly primarily targets your pectoralis major and front deltoid muscles, but it also works the biceps brachii. This may sound strange at first, but just visualize the movement. As you bring the dumbbells out to your sides in an arclike motion, you are performing horizontal shoulder flexion and thus are stretching your biceps, especially the short head. Then, as you bring the dumbbell up over the midline of your chest, again in an arclike motion, you are contracting your biceps short head and, to a lesser degree, the long head. So, when you do chest flyes, you are indeed working your biceps short head.
When you train your biceps, you should perform three types of exercises: overall biceps exercises, exercises emphasizing the short head, and exercises emphasizing the long head. Do two overall biceps exercises, such as barbell curls and cable curls. Then, depending on which head is lagging, do either a short head or long head emphasizing exercise, such as incline dumbbell curls and preacher dumbbell curls, respectively. The latter exercise emphasizes the long head because you are placing your shoulders in a slightly flexed position, so your biceps shorten a bit. Therefore, the long head can continue to contract during the range of motion more so than the short head, due to its longer length.